Top10 Sultans of the Ottoman Empire


In this post I prepare a  list of top10 sultans of the Ottoman Empire. is always try to share with you some authentic information. So lets check out the list of top10 list of the sultans of Ottoman Empire.

1.   Osman Gazi

The father of the Ottoman Empire Osman Gazi was born in 1258 in the town of Sogut. His father was Ertugrul Gazi and his mother was Hayme Sultan. Osman Gazi was a tall man with a round face, dark complexion, hazel eyes, and thick eyebrows.

Osman Gazi was a brilliant leader. He was fair, brave and gracious. He helped the poor. Sometimes he gave his own cloths to the poor. Every mid-day, he gave a lavish meal to all people in his house.

Osman Gazi was just 23 when he succeeded the leadership of the Kayi Clan in Sogut, in 1281. He was a very brilliant rider and a fencer. He married to Mal Sultana who was the daughter of famous Omer bey. Mal Sultan gave birth to Orhan who succeeded the throne.

The founder of Ottoman empire- risen from Anatolia and reigned for 600 years, over three continents- Osman Gazi, died of gout, in Bursa in 1326. When he died, he left an horse armor, a pair of high boots, a few sun jacks, a sword, a lance, a tirkes, a few horses, three herds of sheep, salt and spoon containers.

His Wifes : Mal Hatun , Rabi'a Bala Hatun
His Sons : Pazarli, Coban, Hamit, Orhan, Ala-ed-din, Ali, Melik, Savci
His Daughters : Fatma Sultan.

2.   Orhan Gazi

Orhan Gazi was born in 1281. His father was Osman Gazi and his mother was Mal Sultana, the daughter of Omer, who was a respected person in the Kayi Clan. Orhan Gazi was tall, had a blonde beard and blue eyes. He was a benign, forgiving, religious and fair ruler. He admired the theologians. He had strong and patient character. He spent most of his time with his people or by visiting them. He had won the admire of his people in a short time.

His Wifes : Nilufer Hatun , Asporca Hatun , Theodora Hatun , Eftandise Hatun
His Sons : SuleymanPasha, Murad, Ibrahim, Halil, Kasim.
His Daughters : Fatma Hatun

3.   Murat I

Murad I was born in Bursa, in 1326. His father was Orhan Gazi and his mother was Nilufer Hatun (Holofira) the daughter of a Christian Byzantine Prince. Murad I was a tall man with a round face and a big nose, he had a muscular body. He wore a cap with Mevlevi coins and a testar wrapped on it. He dressed up simple and he liked red and white cloths. He had his first education from his mother. Afterwards, he attended to Bursa Medrese (University) to complete his education and he lived with scientists, theologians and artists.

His Wifes : Gulcicek Hatun ,Marya Thamara Hatun ,Pasha Melek Hatun ,Fulane Hatun
His Sons : Yakub Celebi, Bayezid, Savci Bey, Ibrahim
His Daughters : Nefise and Sultan Hatun

4.   Beyazid I

Bayezid was born in Edirne in 1360. His father was Murad I and his mother was Gulcicek Sultana. Bayezid had a round face, light complexion, ram nose, hazel eyes, blond hair, thick beard and large shoulders. Because of his bravery, he was called as "Yildirim"(thunderbolt).

 He spent his childhood with his brothers in the Bursa Palace. He was educated by the famous scholars of the time. In his youth, he was appointed as the governor of Kutahya province. Due to Sultan Murad's (Murad I) testament, he crowned in 1389 at the age of 29.

He besieged Byzantine Emperor at Constantinople, then overcame the Turkish rulers in E Anatolia and defeated the army of Sigismund of Hungary at Nicopolis.In Serbia, Stefan Lazaroevic son of the King Lazar crowned king. He came to Edirne for the peace treaty and he gave his sister to Bayezid and with this marriage, Ottoman - Serbian friendship was accomplished. Unfortunately, Bayezid, was defeated in the Ankara War by Timur (the Mongolian Khan).

Timur slaved him and Bayezid died in seven months twelve days. His sultanate took 13 very victorious years but ended very sadly. He wore clothes of brocade with a white loose neck and his turban was coiled and wound round a gold embroidered üsküf. He received a great amount of money from taxation so that the treasury became very rich. Regular pay was distributed to the soldiers for the first time during his reign.

His Wifes : Shah Hatun ,Devlet Hatun ,Hafsa Hatun, Sultan Hatun, Marya Olivera Despina Hatun
His Sons : Musa Celebi, Suleyman Celebi, Mustafa Celebi, Isa Celebi
His Daughters : Fatma Sultana.

5.   Celebi Mehmet

Mehmed I was born in Edirne in 1389. His father was Bayezid I and his mother was Devlet Sultan from Germiyanogullari. He was medium height, he had a round face, light complexion and a wide chest. He had a strong body. He was so energetic and brave. He was a very successful archer and wrestler. Mehmed had participated in 24 wars and he had more than 40 wounds. He was very good looking with his sarık (turban) on his head.

He used to wear a caftan. Mehmed treated equally to the Muslims and the Christians. He was a brilliant statesman and a politician. He completed his education in the Bursa Palace. Then he was appointed as the Governor of Amasya. During this duty he improved his skills in state administration. Sultan Mehmed united all the clans in Anatolia, and he put an end to the period of Fetret (Interregnum), thus he was named as the second founder of the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Mehmet Celebi had died in Edirne, in 1421. His death was hidden from the army and the people. He was the first sultan whom death was concealed. He was buried in the Yesil Turbe (Green Tomb) in Bursa.

His Wifes : Sheh-zade Kumru Hatun , Emine Hatun
His Sons : Mustafa Celebi, Murad II, Ahmed, Yusuf, Mahmud.
His Daughters : Fatma Sultana, Selcuk Sultana

6.   Murat II.

Murad II was born in 1402. His father was Mehmed I and his mother was Emine Sultana from the Dulkadirogullari State. He was a tall man with light complexion, he had a falcon nose and a beautiful face. He spent his chilhood in Amasya and he ascended to the throne at the age of 19. He was a perfect orator. His greatest happiness in life was his excellent son Mehmed (Mehmet the ConquerorMurad II was essentially a man of peace and he prefered to lead a quiet life. But, he had wars and threats of wars thrust continually upon him. He was a very bold, energetic soldier and he ruled his country gloriously and honourably for 30 years. He won the love and respect of the Ottoman people for his spirit of honour and justice, his sincerity and simplicity).

His Wifes : Alime Hatun, Yeni Hatun, Huma Hatun, Tacunnisa Hatice Halime Hatun, Mara Hatun.
His Sons : Mehmed II (The Conqueror), Ahmed, Alaeddin, Orhan, Hasan, Ahmed.
His Daughters : Sehzade and Fatma Sultana.

7.   Beyazit II.

Sultan Bayezid was born in Dimetoka on 3rd December 1448. He was the son of Mehmet the Conqueror. His mother was Mukrime Hatun. Bayezid was a brave, religious and a calm man. His father Sultan Mehmet II was an admirer of science and he put great emphasis on his son's education. As all the sehzades of the Ottoman Empire, Bayezid was also very well educated by the famous scholars of the period. He was only seven when he was appointed as the Governor of Amasya a centre of culture and civilisation since The Seljuk Empire. This city was ideal for the education of an heir apperant. Sultan Bayezid II was a very religious man and very fond of literature. He invited many famous poets to the palace. He was so gracious that he always helped the poor. He had spoken Arabic and Persian fluently, afterwards, he learnt Cagatay and Uygur dialects. Besides theology, he studied philosophy and mathematics. He left the throne on 24th April 1512 and passed away one month later.

His Wifes : - Nigar Hatun, Sirin Hatun, Gulruh Hatun, Bulbul Hatun, Husnushah Hatun, Gulbahar Hatun, Ferahshad Hatun, Ayse Hatun
His Sons: Mahmud, Ahmed, Seyidsah, Selim, Mehmed, Korkud, Abdullah and Alimsah.
His Daughters: Aynisah, Gevher, Muluk, Hatice, Selcuk and Huma

8.   Selim I.

Yavuz Sultan Selim was born on 10th October 1470. His father was Sultan Bayezid II and his mother was Gulbahar Sultana from Dulkadirogulları State. Selim I was a tall and a strong man. He was a very brave soldier and naturally tough. He was very well educated.

Selim was very much interested in science and theology beside the governmental issues. He attended the lessons of famous scholar Mevlana Abdulhalim. During the sultanate of his father Bayezid II, Selim was appointed as the Governor of Trabizon (The Black Sea Region of Anatolia). He learnt the administrative regulations and the military system of the Empire there. He ruled the region very successfully. He improved the Ottoman relations with the neighbourhood states.

He organised three campaigns to Georgia against their continuos anti-Ottoman propagandas. With these successful campaigns Selim invaded Kars, Erzurum, Artvin (1508). All the Georgians living in those regions converted to Islam.Selim was a brilliant rider and a successful fencer. He was very good at wrestling and archery too. He had a military spirit but he was fond of arts as well. He was very modest; for example; he was used to eat only one sort of food from a wooden plate, in every meal.

 He never liked vanity, never spent the Empire's money. He was generous with the "ulufe" of the Janissaries and also rewarded them amply for their services. He had invented the Taylesanlı Selimi turban (a type of turban with the end of the wrap or cloth hanging down), and he used to wear this above a handsome headgear, a mücevveze in red velvet similar to the one the Janissaries wore. His attire, moreover, was identical to that of the gazis During his reign, the treasury was completely full.

 He sealed the treasury and bequeathed as fallow; "If any of my successors could fill the treasury as much as I did, would use his own seal, otherwise they all will use my seal". This will was kept by Selim's successors, as none of the Sultans came after him, could have been filled the treasury as much as he did, his seal was used to lock the treasury for centuries. Although his ancestors were all bearded, he always shaved his beard. He also had an earring. He died on 22th September 1520 because of cancer. He was just fifty years old. The historians agreed on that, he had short but a very brilliant career.

His Wifes : Ayse Hatun, Ayse Hafsa Hatun
His Sons: Suleyman (the Magnificent)
His Daughters: Hatice Sultan, Fatma Sultan, Hafsa Sultan, Shah Sultan)


9.   Suleyman I.

Suleyman I was born on 27th April 1495, Monday in Trabzon. His father was Sultan Selim I and his mother was Hafsa Sultan. Suleyman I was a tall man with a round face, hazel eyes broad forehead and a thin beard. Suleyman the Magnificent had reigned for forty six years (1520-1566) and this is the most memorable epoch of the empire, when it reached a pitch of grandeur and prosperity which was never afterwards surpassed, and from which it soon began to decline.Suleyman is commonly designated by European writers the "great" or the "magnificent".

But the native historians style him the "lawgiver"(Kanuni), "the lord of his century" and "completor of the perfect ten". His father Sultan Selim I put great emphasis on Suleyman's education, he took his first education from his grandmother Gulbahar Hatun. When he reached the age of seven, he was sent to Istanbul to his grandfather Sultan Bayezid II where he was educated by famous scholar Karakızoglu Hayreddin Hızır Efendi. He studied history, science, literature, and theology besides the lessons of war tactics and techniques. Afterwards, he went to his father in Trabzon again and stayed there until he reached 15.

 At the age of 15, he wanted to be a governor, and he was sent to Sarki province and then to Karahisar and to Bolu, after a short while he was sent to Kefe. After Sultan Selim I ascended to the throne in 1512, Shehzade Suleyman was invited to Istanbul as the regent of his father Selim whom was dealing with throne struggles with his brothers. At the same time he was the governor of Saruhan province. After Selim I had passed away, Suleyman succeeded him without any rejection as everbody knew he was a very serious and confident man. He never hesitated and never broken the commands he gave. He obliged people according to their capacities and abilities.

He died on 7th September 1566, in his 71, while he was commanding the siege of Sziget. Because he made written laws and applied them strictly he was called as 'Kanuni' (Law giver). He was a very gracious ruler, very fair and he never tyrannised his people. For example; he found the tax coming from Egypt so much and he had made a research there and found that the people were overcharged, and discovered the governor was tyrannising them, so he immediately changed the governor.

Suleyman's poetry is among the best poetry in Islam, and he sponsored an army of artists, religious thinkers, and philosophers that outshone the most educated courts of Europe. Süleyman the Magnificent had a handsome and bright face, dark brown eyes, a ram-nose and thick and Iong moustache. His black eyebrows were joined together, his chest was broad and his arms were long and muscular. He resembled a lion with his majestic bearing and had a beautiful and clear voice. He was heroic, determined, and powerful, and was blessed with good fortune and luck for both for himself and for those around him

His Wifes : Hurrem Haseki Sultana, Mahidevran Kadın, Gulfem Hatun, Fulane Hatun
His Sons: Selim II, Bayezid, Abdullah, Murad, Mehmed, Mahmud, Cihangir, Mustafa
His Daughters: Mihriman Sultan, Raziye Sultan.

 10.Selim II

Sultan Selim II was born on 28th May 1524, in Istanbul. He was the son of Suleyman the Magnificant and Hurrem Sultana. Hurrem Sultana was Slav originated. Because, Selim II had blond hair he often called as "Yellow Selim". Selim was very well educated. In his father's period he ruled many provinces in Anatolia. While acting as a governor he continued his education.Suleyman I had passed away when Selim was the governor of Kutahya. On hearing his father's death he went to Istanbul.He succeeded the throne at the age of 42. He was a insignificant sultan compered to his ancestors. His brothers Shehzade Bayezid and Mustafa were killed during his father Suleyman's period and he ascended the throne without any conflicts. But, he was not as talented as his father Suleyman or his grandfather Selim I. Under successful administrations of experienced statesmen of the period especially grand vizier Sokollu Mehmet Pasha the empire continued to be a world power. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha had been the grand vizier for 15 years and it is possible to say that he ruled the empire in this period. Sultan Selim II never went to campaigns himself. Never commanded his army. Inebahti defeat is a result of his Commander of the Seas Ali Pasha's failure in commanding the navy. Sultan Selim had died on 5th December 1574, in Istanbul. He was the first Ottoman Sultan died in Istanbul.

His Wifes : Nurbanu Sultan
His Sons: Murad III, Abdullah, Osman, Mustafa, Suleyman, Mehmed, Cihangir.
His Daughters: Fatma, Sah, Gevherhan, Esma.









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